Submit your question to ICAP. Only confirmed registered users can submit a question. If you are not registered, click here to start. Submitted questions will be routed to ICAP Coordinators Edward K. L. Chan (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Luis E. C. Andrade (email@example.com). Simple questions will be answered within 24 hours. Complex questions will be routed to several ICAP members either for a consensus or to provide different viewpoints and it may take 72 hours to 2 weeks for an answer. Note that some questions/answers may be edited and may appear in the FAQ section of ICAP website. Please note that we do not offer clinical advice on individual patients as it is unethical for us to provide medical advice. Patients may consider referring their doctors to the website. When submitting a question, if applicable please provide information, such as 1) serum dilution and 2) manufacturer information of HEp-2 substrate used. It is now feasible to include up to three IFA images together with your question. When images are submitted, please first consider providing high quality images (e.g. iPhone images capturing a IFA pattern on a computer screen is not appropriate as resolution is much reduced for any useful interpretation). Please also indicate 1) how many images are submitted with your question and 2) if possible, indicate whether the IFA pattern in question changes with serial dilutions. Please note by submitting your images, there is an implied agreement for ICAP to include them as part of a FAQ in the ICAP website. Only images in JPEG extension will be accepted.
Tips to identify AC-4a pattern
Question: Any good tip to observe AC-4a pattern?
What is the magnification needed for assigning HEp-2 IFA patterns?
Question: Has ICAP made any clear statement about the magnification at which HEp-2 IFA staining patterns in should be evaluated before assigning a pattern?
Differences between multiple, mixed, and composite HEp-2 IFA patterns?
Question: Can you provide more information on how ICAP defines the differences between multiple patterns, mixed patterns, and composite patterns in HEp-2 IFA?
Cytoplasmic positive alone is ANA positive or negative? Hello, I would appreciate if you can share with me how to report cytoplasmic staining (without nuclear staining) as ANA positive or negative?
Ro/SS-A and La/SS-B negative in HEp-2 IFA. Can I get positive Ro and La with negative ANA IFA? How to explain if yes?